Beijing said the law would restore stability after almost a year of unrest, but instead it sparked the worst street violence in months.
For example, asking foreign organisations or authorities to adopt sanctions against the Hong Kong or Beijing government or generally provoking Hong Kong residents to "hate" the Beijing or Hong Kong government could count as collusion.
Taiwan is a self-governing democracy claimed by China as its own territory and has firmly rejected Beijing's demand that it unify with the mainland under the "one country, two systems" framework in place in Hong Kong.
"It is also an inevitable and prompt decision to restore stability", Lam said at the harbor-front venue where the last colonial governor, Chris Patten, a staunch critic of the security law, tearfully handed back Hong Kong to China.
A former employee of the British consulate in Hong Kong, Simon Cheng, said he had been granted political asylum by the British government after being beaten by Chinese secret police past year in mainland China during 15 days of detention.
"We will live up to its responsibilities to the people of Hong Kong".
Wong said worrying about life and safety has become a real issue and nobody will be able to predict the repercussions of the law, whether it is being extradited to China or facing long jail terms.
"Even the bravest people in Hong Kong are anxious that the law is going to get them", she said.
Lam said in a statement that the city's government will establish a commission for safeguarding national security and that it will be chaired by her as soon as possible. "Time and again, President Trump has surrendered our values and reassured China's autocrats they have a like-minded partner in the White House", Biden said in a statement.
Most of the national security cases will be tried in Hong Kong courts, but the central government can exercise jurisdiction over "complex cases" that involve foreign interference and are hard for the Hong Kong government to oversee, "serious circumstances" as well as cases where China faces "grave" threats.
"For the time being, Hong Kong BNO citizens can travel to the United Kingdom immediately, but will be subject to immigration checks", the Prime Minister's official spokesperson said. "Now it will be just another communist-run city, where its people will be subject to the party elite's whims".
British Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab described Wednesday's protests as heartbreaking and reprimanded HSBC and other banks for supporting the new law, saying the rights of Hong Kong should not be sacrificed for bankers' bonuses.
He said China would take necessary measures to protect its national interests in response to the wrong acts of the United States.
In Beijing, Zhang Xiaoming, executive deputy director of Beijing's Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office, told reporters suspects arrested by a new Beijing-run security office could be tried on the mainland. They fear its four areas of criminal activity are so ill-defined that the law could be used as an excuse to round up anyone critical of the Chinese government.
Martinez urged China to comply with its obligations under domestic and worldwide law and to reaffirm its commitment to the rule of law, judicial independence and human rights in Hong Kong.
China for years had put off another such effort.
Thousands protested the new security laws that went into full effect overnight Tuesday. Local authorities are barred from interfering with central government bodies operating in Hong Kong while they are carrying out their duties, according to the text. Beijing condemned the protests as an attempt to permanently split Hong Kong away from China.
Questions linger over the effects on Hong Kong's free press that has come under increasing political and financial pressure, as well as the operations of non-governmental organisations, particularly those with foreign connections. Others say it aims to fundamentally change Hong Kong society with requirements for "national security education" in schools, the media, and the internet.