The 33-year-old forward, who ended his nine-season stay at Real Madrid by moving to Juventus for £99million in the summer, is a five-time victor of the award.
During the turn of the decade FIFA and Ballon d'Or merged together and was presented as one prestigious award but that association came to an end in 2016.
Real Madrid and Wales forward Gareth Bale and Manchester City's Belgium midfielder Kevin De Bruyne also featured among a list of familiar names.
The Croatian had a stellar year, leading his country to an unlikely World Cup final while also winning a third-consecutive Champions League title.
Also making the cut are Juve's Mario Mandzukic and Liverpool'sSadio Mane, while Barcelona are also represented by Croat defender Ivan Rakitic.
Antoine Griezmann is one of the great favorites to take the prize due to his triumphs in the Europe League, the UEFA Super Cup title and, above all, the World Cup in Russian Federation, where he was one of the most outstanding players.
A total of 30 players will make up the shortlist for the award, which was won by Cristiano Ronaldo in 2017.
Firmino is nominated despite Liverpool failing to win a trophy last term and Brazil reaching only the World Cup quarter-finals, while Godin gets the nod following Atletico Madrid's victories in the Europa League and UEFA Super Cup. The two Ballon d'Or Awards will be decided by an global jury of journalists, with AS editor Alfredo Relaño again casting Spain's vote this year.