Meanwhile, the US, British and Canadian security services have alleged that a hacking group, believed to be operating as part of Russian intelligence services, was targeting organisations involved in Covid-19 vaccine development.
The participants either received the new COVID-19 vaccine (543 participants) or the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (534 people).
Nucleic acid vaccines have emerged as ideal vaccine candidates that do not require pathogen culture or recombinant protein production. In addition to antibody production that can block the infection, the vaccine induces T cells, a type of white blood cell that provides a second line of defense if antibodies don't completely block the infection.
Moderna Inc and Merck & Co on Tuesday told a U.S. Congressional panel that they expect to profit from their coronavirus vaccines once approved, amid concerns the vaccines may not be accessible to all.
The authors say the participants recruited in this study will be followed-up for at least one year to continue to study the vaccine's safety and the immune response it provokes.
Once the clinical trials are completed, Lukito said, "We can immediately issue the license for distribution, so that the vaccines can be immediately distributed". LION was developed by the Seattle biotechnology company HDT Bio; Amit P. Kandhar is the lead formulation developer of LION.
Merck's has yet to begin human studies of its experimental vaccine, lagging the leading candidates.
The nanoparticle enhances the vaccine's ability to provoke the desired immune reaction, and also its stability. Its components would allow it to be rapidly manufactured in large quantities, should it prove safe and effective in human trials. 72% of the patients received the medium dose, while 74% received the lower dose.
The two-vial approach enabled by LION allows for manufacturing of the formulation independently from the mRNA component. As well as continuing to test our vaccine in Phase III trials, we need to learn more about the virus - for example, we still do not know how strong an immune response we need to provoke to effectively protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
An alternative to mRNA and DNA vaccines is the virus-derived replicon RNA (repRNA) vaccine, which has an intact open reading frame encoding the viral RNA polymerase complex, but with the structural protein genes replaced with an antigen-encoding gene.