Researchers discover doorway used by COVID-19 virus to enter human cells

Reducing coronavirus spread: Mouthwash, oral rinses are ‘effective at inactivating’ COVID-19, Penn State study suggests

The scientists, led by Marc Veldhoen from Instituto de Medicina Molecular (IMM) in Portugal, monitored the antibody levels of over 300 COVID-19 hospital patients and healthcare workers, 2500 university staff, and 198 post-COVID volunteers. "This highlights how scientific knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 is constantly being revised and updated as new research is carried out".

To better understand how the virus infects the lungs and causes disease, a team of scientists from the United Kingdom and South Korea turned to organoids - mini-organs grown to mimic real life organ behaviour.

Dr Joo-Hyeon Lee, co-senior author, said: "We still know surprisingly little about how SARS-CoV-2 infects the lungs and causes disease".

Almost 30,000 people in the state of Arizona have been tested by the team since April 30, shortly after they had a COVID-19 blood test. According to the researchers, who published their study in the journal European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, increase in smoke particles between March and September corresponded to increases in daily COVID-19 diagnoses and total COVID-19 deaths.

A significant breakthrough from an global team of scientists, under the University of Bristol's guidance, might have just discovered what makes SARS-CoV-2 so intensely infectious and able to spread so fast among cells. Replication enables the virus to spread throughout the body, infecting other cells and tissue. After 48 hours, the interferons triggered the innate immune response and the cells started fighting back against infection.

Meanwhile, researchers have also found that antiviral mouthwash can in fact decrease COVID-19 transmission risk by reducing the viral loads in the mouths of infected patients when they cough, sneeze or speak-- the primary ways in which the virus is transmitted.

The scientists say there are several possible reasons for this. It may take several days from the virus first infiltrating the upper respiratory tract to it reaching the alveoli.

They suggest it may also require a substantial proportion of alveolar cells to be infected or for further interactions with immune cells - resulting in more inflammation - before a patient shows symptoms.

Though the researchers didn't specifically test Covid-19 in the study, the novel virus is genetically similar to the other human coronaviruses tested, namely 229e, a strain that can cause the common cold.

The researchers believe the next months will be critical to evaluate the robustness of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to find clues for questions such as the duration of circulating antibodies and the impact of reinfection.

The researchers found Johnson's Baby Shampoo, a nasal rinse, was able to inactivate more than 99 per cent of the virus in one minute, and more than 99.9 per cent in 2 minutes.

A suite of SARS-CoV-2 mutant spike and nucleocapsid antigens is now available from AMSBIO.

"While we wait for a vaccine to be developed, methods to reduce transmission are needed", explained Craig Meyers, a Penn State professor and leader of the study, in a press release. "This is incredibly elegant work to figure out how to purify and grow AT2 cells in culture in pure form", Baric said.