It will be a challenging mission for NASA as no space mission has gone so close to the solar surface and NASA engineers will have to develop technology that can withstand weather conditions at distance of four million miles from the Solar surface.
The mission, known as the Solar Probe Plus (SPP), will go seven times closer to the sun's surface than any spacecraft before it.
We live in the sun's atmosphere! A second question has to do with solar winds.
"Without advance warning a huge solar event could cause two trillion dollars in damage in the USA alone, and the eastern seaboard of the U.S. could be without power for a year", the Solar Probe mission page reads.
NASA is in works to send the first robotic spacecraft to the Sun next year.
"You'd think the farther away you get from a heat source, you'd get colder", Eric Christian, a NASA research scientist at the Greenbelt, Maryland-based Goddard Space Flight Center, told LiveScience.com.
Christian said researcher hope to get answers to other questions, like solar wind speeds and why the sun occasionally emits high-energy particles, called solar energetic particles, that could endanger unprotected astronauts and spacecraft. NASA scientists have designed a 4.5-inch-thick (11.4 centimeters) carbon-composite shield, which is created to withstand temperatures outside the spacecraft of 2,500 F (1,370 C), according to the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, a NASA mission partner.
To protect Solar Probe Plus from intense heat, NASA installed a 4.5-inch carbon heat shield, as well as heat tubes known as thermal radiators. The mission is much hard but the scientist is trying to make it too close which no other spacecraft will work before.
The first is to trace the flow of energy that powers the corona. In 2013, Atmospheric Environmental estimated that a solar storm of the magnitude of the Carrington Event would cause as much as $2.6 trillion of damage in the United States alone. However that should happen soon after NASA's upcoming mission to the sun. Data will be key to understanding and, perhaps, forecasting space weather. The sun's volume would need 1.3 million Earths to fill it. The probe's closest approach will be a mere 3.83 million miles.
Views of the solar wind from NASA's STEREO spacecraft (left) and after computer processing (right).
Flying to within 4 million miles of the sun is the challengeof how To deal with the extreme temperatures.
Material from the corona streams out into space, filling the solar system with the solar wind.
Well, at least that is how it has been so far- but it seems things are going to change. Astronomers are expecting to gather interesting information about Sun's corona.