IOC decision a blow to clean athletes: anti-doping officials

International Olympic Committee president Thomas Bach attends a press conference following an Olympic summit

Bach admitted that "this is a very ambitious timeline" but added that the International Olympic Committee had "no choice". The IOC accepted that ruling, but would not extend it to all other sports.

Any Russian athlete who has served a doping ban will not be eligible for next month's Olympics.

Zhukov does not rule out any Russian athlete filing an urgent appeal as an individual because "all of them can go to CAS".

The cheating went on during the 2014 Sochi Games and other major Olympic and global events, including the world athletics championship in Moscow in 2013.

In addition, the IOC's ruling states that, "The entry of any Russian athlete ultimately accepted by the International Olympic Committee will be subject to a rigorous additional out-of-competition testing programme in coordination with the relevant IF [International Federation] and WADA [the World Anti-Doping Agency]".

The IOC had said that disciplinary proceedings would be opened against Russian officials cited in the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) McLaren report on Monday.

IOC President Thomas Bach has defended the decision not to ban all Russians from the Olympics by insisting clean athletes should not be punished.

"An athlete should not suffer and should not be sanctioned for a system in which he was not implicated", Bach said on Sunday.

Back acknowledged the decision "might not please everybody".

For individuals to be excluded from the "collective responsibility" they must have a spotless worldwide records on drug testing, the IOC said, adding that no athlete who has been sanctioned for doping will be eligible to compete in Rio. The athletes will have to fulfill certain stipulations set out by the IOC. "There would be a record. and if there's not a record of testing and clean competition and clean training from the athlete, then I'd imagine that athlete would be ineligible", Stanley said.

"It is a specific challenge for our sportsmen but I am absolutely sure that the majority of the Russian team will meet the criteria". The new criteria, however amorphous, will likely reduce the number of Russian athletes competing in Rio.

Instead, the governing bodies of individual sports will be left in charge of the decision as to whether Russian athletes within their discipline will be allowed to compete.

The IOC have prevented Russian whistleblower Yulia Stepanova to compete as a neutral athlete in Rio because she does not satisfy the IOC's "ethical requirements".

Around 25 media gathered Sunday at the front door of the IOC's temporary premises in Lausanne, about 400 meters from the Olympic Museum. The IOC said it would propose measures for more transparency and independence.

Calls to sanction the Russian Olympic team have grown louder over the past three months with the Rio Games set to open on August 5.

"This is a very ambitious timeline, but we had no choice", Bach told reporters.

Russia's former Minister of Finance, Aleksei Kudrin, wrote on Twitter that "we must learn a lesson from this and eradicate doping from Russian sport".

"It would be quite hard for us to think we should ban an entire team, which will include some cyclists who are not implicated in any of these stories we've been hearing", said Brian Cookson, president of the International Cycling Union.

A recent World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) report cited widespread, state-sponsored doping by Russian athletes at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, and called for the International Olympic Committee to ban all Russian athletes and officials from the Summer Games in Brazil.

"Many, including clean athletes and whistleblowers, have demonstrated courage and strength in confronting a culture of state-supported doping and corruption within Russia", USADA chief Travis Tygart said.

Russia's President Vladimir Putin has drawn parallels with the 1980 political boycott of the Moscow Games, which led to a boycott of the Los Angeles Games in 1984.

The Rio Olympics look to have escaped a complete ban on all Russian athletes competing next month.

Calls for a complete ban on Russian Federation had intensified since a WADA-commissioned report from Richard McLaren, a Canadian lawyer, accused Russia's sports ministry of overseeing a vast doping program of its Olympic athletes. So did the USA anti-doping agency.